Additive Manufacturing

JUL 2018

ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING is the magazine devoted to industrial applications of 3D printing and digital layering technology. We cover the promise and the challenges of this technology for making functional tooling and end-use production parts.

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AM / 3D Printing a Cylinder Head additivemanufacturing.media 37 "Post-cycle inspection and measurements identified nothing out of the ordinary, so from Roush's perspective this printed cylinder head investigation was a success," Van Benschoten says. Lessons Learned Many of Roush's customers face increasingly stringent tailpipe emissions and fuel economy regulations, forcing continued product development. "Traditionally, we would have to wait months for a prototype cylinder head that has very subtle ge- ometry changes in the combustion chamber. We can now grow one in 3 to 4 days," Van Benschoten says. "Although we are not going to go make 5,000 of these, we can grow three or four different combustion chambers quickly and test them." This cylinder head project proved to Van Benschoten that Roush could use AM for critically stressed and thermally loaded engine components to help its customers develop new technolo- gies or technical solutions much quicker than ever before possible. Roush also learned the value of its long history of subtractive capabilities when it comes to postprocessing 3D-printed parts. "This seldom-considered aspect of AM comes naturally to Roush," says Brandy Badami, Roush's business development manager for additive manufacturing. Badami believes that anyone can take that cylinder head and grow it, but not everyone understands how to prepare the part properly for all the required postprocessing. "If you don't understand what those geometries are, you won't meet the surface finish or tolerance requirements for each feature," Badami says. According to both Van Benschoten and Badami, Roush's value-add is in everything from design consultation to final assembly and part delivery. For example, the company has the ability to optimize a part to reduce mass, apply lattice structures, manipulate features to reduce or eliminate support structure, predict thermal deformation, perform traditional FEA and CFD analysis, set up a layout for the selected build chamber, and nest multiple components, all while considering build efficiency, postprocessing strategy and inspection requirements. "We can take every project across the (postprocessing) finish line," Badami says. Domain expertise and a diversity of work across the automotive, aerospace, defense and entertainment industries among others helps Roush understand the application, the importance of the part and its critical features. "You could spend a lot of time working on an element of a part that ends up not mattering when you ignore the aspects that do matter. You have to machine a few thousand cylinder heads before you make enough mistakes to understand the material, process and tolerancing requirements to make the best decisions," Van Benschoten says. Roush calls it "leveraging the core," which means they lean on the company's core capabilities, whether a team is designing and analyzing a mounting system for a space propulsion appli- cation or a heat exchanger for a motorsports application. "We are training people to think differently, nontradition- ally. We don't want them restricted by traditional methods of manufacturing," Badami says. Roush's additive group consists of about 15 to 20 people who interact with all aspects of the business. "Only a few are dedicated to AM, but everyone is certainly thinking about additive with everything they do," Badami says. Below, the completed cylinder head with the rocker box added. To the right, the development engine with the AM cylinder head installed. The 3D-printed part performed as well as a casting in testing.

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